Project 1 for the development of alternatives, to the known knowledge of physics.



Time takes place during change and is measured by clocks of various kinds.

Mechanical clocks with pendulums or balances, quartz clocks (like digital ones that work with current frequencies) etc.

All clocks work with fixed frequencies, a sequence of signals of various kinds. The time division is standardized in seconds, minutes and hours. As finer units there are tenths, hundreds and in following smaller divisions.

Time is always evenly distributed and changes apparently not. In physics, in the universe and in applications, where accuracy is important, but there are certainly deviations that to make their presence felt.

The best known example of this is the time paradox e.g. twin paradox. One twin remains on earth and the other flies with a spaceship at almost the speed of light. This is difficult to understand if you are on earth or in a spaceship with a twin.

Let's look at the phenomenon as a neutral observer outside the system.

For the sake of simplicity, let's take clocks instead of twins, which show this more accurately.

So we let one clock on a planet and the other one flies with a spaceship very fast (near light speed) past the planet. We observe that the clock on the spaceship runs slower than on the planet. Why that, we ask ourselves?

Well at the planet the amount of energy does not change, but at the rocket it is much bigger than before the start. The energy affects time. The more energy from outside affects the clock, the slower it runs. The energy in the spaceship is closer together than on Earth. The atoms are compressed. The higher the energy, the higher the mass. A higher mass cannot be changed as easily as a smaller one.

For comparison, we take air and water. You can also move faster in the air than under water. In air you need less energy to move (change) than in water.

To calculate the time difference there is the formula

t‘ = t / √ ( 1- v²/c²)

t' = time, rocket, t = time on planet, v = speed, c = speed of light

The formula for the increase in mass is similar, where t and t' are only swapped for m and m'.

m' = m : √ 1- v²/c²

m' = time, rocket, m = time on planet, v = speed, c = speed of light

Seen in this light, it is not a paradox, but an event that can be clearly defined.

Time paradox

Is there really a time paradox, I say no. Why is that, let's look at time from a different angle and put ourselves outside our universe. If we observe the events from there, we see that time in the universe does not seem to run evenly. But what is really different. Well we measure time, in our opinion, by a constant rhythm of a timepiece.

We know that at speeds approaching the speed of light, time seems to run more slowly. Further we know that at extremely high attraction forces the time runs apparently slower.

This cannot be a coincidence. So what is the same for both. Well both are in a higher energy state. That's got to mean some hing.

When a body is in a much higher energy state by speed or attraction, time runs slower there.

Coincidence or not?

I'm for it not to be coincidence. It is rather the case that a higher energy state has a higher force that holds atoms and atomic bonds together more strongly and thus slows down the reactions in the objects.

If this is the case, the clocks of the different objects also go differently, because here the reaction speed is slowed down.

We determine the course of time by a so called constant. As we see in the considerations, it is not as constant as generally assumed.

Since we thereby seemingly have different time sequences and still regard the earth as a yardstick, there seem to be different time sequences and thus a time paradox. But the earth is not the decisive factor in the universe, it is only an insignificant planet.

Time itself is really constant, only because of the enormous speed with which the earth rushes through the universe, there is a different state of energy that influences our time measurement. In the universe there is a different sequence of reactions of the atoms everywhere because of the different energy levels. Therefore, there seems to be a different time sequence everywhere.

This is also a possible explanation why the black extinguishers do not emit light. There the time runs much slower and therefore we don't take the radiation that is emitted from them any more than light was. It is much too long wavelengths to be measured safely.

If on a black hole time runs so slowly that a single light wave is ten thousand times as long, we do not take it as light was, because the frequency is ten thousand times as small. So the frequency is divided by 10,000. Is it any wonder that no light is seen there but only a black surface?

The time paradox is only then there when a view is taken, the earth or another point is taken as reference point. As Einstein already stated, it depends on the initial condition from which one perceives something. Everything is relative, even the measuring condition with which one measures time. We do not know any constant with which time can really be measured.

Energy and time.

The energy of the atom depends, among other things, on its size, speed and the force of attraction acting on it. The energy acting on it determines its energy density and thus its effect on each other.

The binding energy in the atomic nucleus, the atom and between the atoms also depends on it. This influences the binding capacity. Energy is needed to change a state. The energy is increased by the duration of the influence, which is noticeable as an apparent slowing down of time (twin paradox).

Also the attraction of planets and in general changes the course of time, because there is also a binding energy.

What about black extinguishers? There the attraction force is higher due to the height. Now with the black extinguishers also the reaction time slows down. This means that the radiation that is emitted is no longer in the visible range, but is very long-wave and therefore cannot be appropriate as light. Here, not only, as assumed on earth, the light rays are bent back, but the rays lie in a different frequency range. Even if rays are emitted here, they are not in the range of light waves.

So energy influences speed, mass and time. The earth also moves through space at a high speed. How fast cannot be determined because we do not have a safe point of comparison. Since time is not constant in space due to speed and energy density, we do not know how time really runs. We can theoretically only compare our time with the time of other systems. However, since we cannot yet compare the passage of time with that in other systems, no clear statement can be made.

Have courage, think about it and discuss, only in this way can we come to new insights.Other logical ideas are also welcome.Go to my contact page and write your opinion.

Have fun

George Rönnau

Translated with www.DeepL.com/Translator (free version)